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What is dysmenorrhea? What are the causes and Symptoms of dysmenorrhea?

Dysmenorrhea is the medical name for menstrual cramps that are caused by uterine syncopes. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to common menstrual pains, while secondary dysmenorrhea results from a disorder in the reproductive organs. Both types can be treated.

What is dysmenorrhea?

Dysmenorrhea is the word for pain with menstruation. There are two kinds of dysmenorrhea: “primary“ and “secondary”

Primary dysmenorrhea is common menstrual pangs that are recurrent and are not due to other diseases. Pain usually starts 1 or 2 days before, or when menstrual bleeding begins and is felt in the lower tummy, back, or thighs. Pain can range from mild to severe, can typically last 12 to 72 hours, and can be followed by nausea-and-vomiting, fatigue, and even diarrhoea. Regular menstrual cricks usually become less painful as a women ages and may stop entirely if the woman has a baby.

Secondary dysmenorrhea is pain that is bred by a disorder in the woman’s reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, or infection. Pain from secondary dysmenorrhea usually occurs earlier in the menstrual cycle and lasts longer than common menstrual cramps. The pain is not typically followed by nausea, vomiting, fatigue, or diarrhoea.

What causes dysmenorrhea (pain of menstrual cramps)?

causes of dysmenorrhes
Menstrual cramps are begun by contractions (tightening) in the uterus (which is a muscle) by a chemical called prostaglandin. The uterus, where a baby grows, deals throughout a woman’s menstrual cycle. During menstruation, the uterus guarantees more strongly. If the uterus contracts too strongly, it can compress against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to the muscle tissue of the uterus. Pain results when part of the muscle concisely loses its supply of oxygen.

How does secondary dysmenorrhea cause menstrual cramps?

Menstrual cramp from secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by a disease in the woman’s reproductive organs. Situations that can cause secondary dysmenorrhea include

Endometriosis – A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus (the endometrium) is located outside of the uterus.
Adenomyosis – A condition where the lining of the uterus develops into the muscle of the uterus.
Pelvic inflammatory disease – An infection generated by bacteria that starts in the uterus and can expand to other reproductive organs.
Cervical stenosis – Narrowing of the hole to the uterus.
Fibroids (benign tumours) – develops on the inner wall of the uterus.

What are the symptoms of dysmenorrhea?


Aching cramps in the abdomen (pain may be severe at times)
Feeling of pressure in the gut
Pain in the haunches, lower back, and inner thighs

Women with dysmenorrhea will face many difficulties in that situation you need to consultant doctor. Don’t worry Mrs Sarah Hussain is here to bring you out from this tension. She is one of the experienced gynaecologists from London. Get an appointment now or contact now.

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What is pelvic Inflammatory Disease and its symptoms and causes?

Pelvic inflammatory disease(PID) is an infection of the female generative organs. It usually occurs when sexually transferred bacteria grown from your vagina to your uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries.

PID usually induces no signs or symptoms. As a result, you might not recognise you have the situation and get the required treatment. The condition might be identified later if you have trouble getting pregnant or if you develop chronic pelvic pain.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease signs


Signs and symptoms of the pelvic inflammatory disease might include:

  • Pain in your lower abdomen and pelvis
  • Heavy vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odour
  • R5andom uterine bleeding, particularly during or after copulation, or between menstrual cycles
  • Pain or bleeding during intercourse
  • Fever, sometimes with chills
  • Painful or difficult urination


PID might cause only moderate signs and symptoms or none at all. When critical, PID might cause fever, chills, severe lower abdominal or pelvic pain — especially during a pelvic exam — and bowel discomfort.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor or seek immediate medical care if you experience:

  • Severe pain low in your abdomen
  • Revulsion and vomiting, with an inadequacy to keep anything down
  • Fever, with a temperature unusual than 101 F (38.3 C)
  • Foul vaginal discharge

If your signs and symptoms insist but aren’t critical, see your doctor as soon as possible. Vaginal discharge with an odour, painful urination or bleeding between menstrual cycles can be allied with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). If these signs and symptoms happen, stop having sex and see your doctor soon. Quick treatment of an STI can help prevent PID.


Many types of bacteria can cause PID, but gonorrhoea or chlamydia infections are the most usual. These bacteria are usually obtained during unprotected sex.

Less commonly, bacteria can invade your reproductive plot anytime the normal difficulty created by the cervix is disrupted. This can happen after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion.

Risk factors

A number of factors might raise your risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, including

  • Being a sexually energetic woman younger than 25 years old
  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Being in a sexual association with a person who has more than one sex ally
  • Having sex without a condom
  • Douching always, which upsets the balance of good versus unhealthy bacteria in the vagina and might mask symptoms
  • Having a history of the pelvic inflammatory disease or a sexually transmitted infection

Most specialists now agree that having an intrauterine device (IUD) embedded does not increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Any inherent risk is generally within the first three weeks after insertion.

If you are facing the PID then our Gynaecologist will help you overcome that problem, Mrs Sarah Hussain, one of the most recommended Gynic in London. Get an appointment now or contact us.

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What are the medical treatment PCOS?

Treatment for PCOS normally starts with lifestyle changes like weight loss, diet, and exercise.
Losing just 5 to 10 per cent of your body weight can help regulate your menstrual cycle and improve PCOS symptoms. Weight loss can also gain cholesterol levels, lower insulin, and reduce heart disease and diabetes risks.
Any diet that assists you to lose weight can help your condition. However, some diets may have benefits over others.

Studies balancing diets for PCOS have found that low-carbohydrate diets are effective for both weight loss and lowering insulin levels. A low glycemic index (low-GI) food that gets most carbohydrates from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains helps control the menstrual cycle better than a regular weight loss diet.

A few studies have noticed that 30 minutes of moderate-intensity workout at least three days a week can help women with PCOS lose weight. Losing weight with exercise also develops ovulation and insulin levels.
Exercise is even more useful when combined with a healthy diet. Diet plus exercise aids you lose more weight than either intervention alone, and it lowers your risks for diabetes and heart disease.

There is some proof that acupuncture can help with improving PCOS, but more research is needed.

Common medical treatments

Birth control pills and other medicines can help control the menstrual cycle and treat PCOS symptoms like hair growth and acne.

Birth control

Taking estrogen and progestin daily can restore a healthy hormone balance, regulate ovulation, relieve symptoms like excessive hair growth, and protect against endometrial cancer. These hormones befall in a pill, patch, or vaginal ring.


Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet) is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It also treats PCOS by increasing insulin levels. One study found that taking metformin while causing changes to diet and exercise improves weight loss, lowers blood sugar, and restores a normal menstrual cycle better than changes to diet and exercise alone.


Clomiphene (Clomid) is a productivity drug that can help women with PCOS get pregnant. However, it increases the chance for twins and other multiple births.

Hair removal medicines

A few remedies can help get rid of unwanted hair or stop it from growing. Eflornithine (Vaniqa) cream is a prescription pill that slows hair growth. Laser hair removal and electrolysis can get free of unwanted hair on your face and body.


Surgery can be a choice to grow fertility if other treatments don’t work. Ovarian drilling is a method that makes tiny holes in the ovary with a laser or thin heated needle to restore normal ovulation.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if:

  • You’ve fumbled periods and you’re not pregnant.
  • You have signs of PCOS, such as hair growth on your face and body.
  • You have indications of diabetes, such as excessive thirst or hunger, blurred vision, or unexplained weight loss.

If you have PCOS, plan frequent visits with your primary care doctor. You’ll need general tests to check for diabetes, high blood pressure, and other possible complications.

The bottom line

PCOS can intrude a woman’s menstrual cycles and make it difficult to get pregnant. High levels of male hormones also affect unwanted symptoms like hair growth on the face and body.

Lifestyle mediations are the first treatments doctors recommend for PCOS, and they often work well. Weight loss can treat PCOS symptoms and recover the odds of getting pregnant. Diet and aerobic workout are two effective ways to lose weight. Medicines are a substitute if lifestyle changes don’t work. Birth control pills and metformin can both restore more normal menstrual cycles and reduce PCOS symptoms.

Are you suffering from PCOS and looking for a professional gynaecologist in London. Mrs Sarah Hussain an experienced and most professional gynaecologist will help you treat PCOS. Book Appointment or contact now.

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What are the Symptoms of PCOS How it Affects the human body How it is diagnosed

What are the Symptoms of PCOS? How it Affects the human body? How it is diagnosed?

Today some women begin to see symptoms around the time of their first period. Others only find they have PCOS after they’ve gained a lot of weight. Before making the PCOS so serious its better to recognise the symptoms.

The Most common PCOS Symptoms are:

  • Irregular Periods: A loss of ovulation prevents the uterine lining from emitting every month. Few women with PCOS get fewer than eight periods a year.
  • Heavy Growth: The Uterine Lining mounts up for a longer period of time, so the periods you do get can be heavier than normal.
  • Hair Growth: 70% and more women with this problem grow their hair on their face and body that includes on their back, belly, chest. This excess hair growth is called hirsutism.
  • Acne: Hormones from males can make the skin oilier than normal and cause breakouts on areas like the face, chest and upper back.
  • Weight Gain: More than 80% of women with this problem are obese.
  • Male-pattern Baldness: Even the hair on the scalp gets thinner and also fall out.
  • Darkening of the skin: Dark patches of skin can form in body creases like those on the neck, in the crotch, and under the breasts.
  • Headaches: Hormones variations can trigger headaches in some women.

There are many other types of symptoms in PCOS. The below image describes everything

symptoms of PCOS

How PCOS affects your body

Having higher-than-normal androgen levels can affect your health.

  • Metabolic Syndrome:

80% of women with PCOS are overweight or obese. Both obesity and PCOS increase your risk for high blood sugar, high blood Pressure, low HDL cholesterol and high LDL cholesterol. Together, these factors are known as metabolic syndrome, and they increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes and stroke.

  • Sleep Apnea

This condition causes replicated pauses in breathing during the night, which disrupt sleep.
Sleep Apnea is more common in women who are overweight especially for those who have PCOS. The risk for sleep Apnea is 5 to 10 times higher in obese women with PCOS that those without PCOS.

effects of PCOS


  • Endometrial cancer

During ovulation, the uterine lining sheds. If you don’t ovulate every month, the wall can build up. A hardened uterine lining can increase your risk for endometrial cancer.

  • Depression

Both hormonal changes and signs like unwanted hair growth can negatively influence your emotions. Many with PCOS end up undergoing depression and anxiety.

How to diagnose PCOS

Doctor typically diagnose PCOS in women who have at least two of these three symptoms:

  • high androgen levels
  • irregular menstrual cycles
  • cysts in the ovaries

Your doctor should also entreat whether you’ve had signs like acne, face and body hair growth, and weight gain.

A pelvic exam can seem for any problems with your ovaries or other parts of your reproductive plot. During this test, your doctor supplements gloved fingers into your vagina and drafts for any lumps in your ovaries or uterus.

Blood tests monitor for higher-than-normal levels of male hormones. You might also have blood tests to verify your cholesterol, insulin, and triglyceride levels to estimate your risk for related situations like heart disease and diabetes.
An ultrasound uses sound waves to see for abnormal follicles and other difficulties with your ovaries and uterus.

Are you scared of PCOS? Dr Sarah Hussain will help you to clear all your doubts about PCOS. The famous Gynaecologist in London will treat you for all the  Gyanic problems. Get an appointment now or reach us here.

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What is Poly cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)? What are the Causes?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS) is a condition that influences a woman’s hormone levels. Women with PCOS give higher than normal amounts of male hormones. This hormone irregularity causes them to skip menstrual periods.

PCOS also causes hair growth on the face, body, and baldness. It can extend to long-term health problems like diabetes and heart disease. Pills for birth control and diabetes drugs can help fix the hormone imbalance and improve symptoms. Read on for a glance at the causes of PCOS and its effects on a woman’s body.

What is PCOS?

PCOS is a problem with hormones that affects women during their childbearing years(ages between 15 to 44). Between 2.2 and 26.7 % of women in this age group have PCOS. Many of the women have PCOS but unaware of it. One of the serves declared that up to 70% of women with PCOS hadn’t diagnosed.

What is PCOS

PCOS influence a woman’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone – hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle. The ovaries also allow a small number of male hormones called androgens
The ovaries deliver eggs to be fertilized by a man’s sperm. The discharge of an egg each month is known as ovulation.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) restraint ovulation. FSH spurs the ovary to give a follicle — a pouch that contains an egg — and then LH triggers the ovary to release a mature egg.
PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that changes the ovaries and ovulation. Its three main features are:

  • cysts in the ovaries
  • high levels of male hormones
  • irregular or skipped periods

In PCOS, many tiny, fluid-filled cysts grow inside the ovaries. The word “polycystic” means “many vesicles.”
These sacs are actually follicles, each one carrying an immature egg. The eggs never mature sufficiently to trigger ovulation.

The lack of ovulation adjusts levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH. Estrogen and progesterone levels are below than usual, while androgen levels are steeper than usual. Extra male hormones upset the menstrual cycle, so women with PCOS get fewer periods than usual.

Causes of PCOS

Doctors don’t know accurately what effects PCOS. They assume that high levels of male hormones stop the ovaries from generating hormones and producing eggs normally.

pcos cuases

Genes, insulin stability, and inflammation have all been linked to excess androgen generation.

  • Genes

Studies show that PCOS appears in families. It’s likely that many genes — not just one — provide to the condition.

  • Insulin resistance

Up to 70% of women with PCOS have insulin resistance, meaning that their cells can’t use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone the pancreas contributes to support the body use sugar from foods for energy. When cells can’t use insulin properly, the body’s demand for insulin raise. The pancreas makes more insulin to neutralize. Extra insulin triggers the ovaries to generate more male hormones. Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance. Both obesity and insulin resistance can increase your peril for type 2 diabetes.

  • Inflammation

Women with PCOS often have grown levels of inflammation in their body. Being overweight can also provide to inflammation. Studies have associated excess inflammation to important androgen levels.

There are a few more factors that cause the PCOS for the Women.


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects up to almost 27 % of women during their childbearing years. It involves cysts in the ovaries, huge levels of male hormones, and random periods.

If you are facing this PCOS and are searching for the best Gynae. Here you come, Mrs Sarah Hussain, one of the best one of the popular gynaecology to overcome your PCOS problem. Get an appointment now or Contact us today.

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