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What is urinary tract infections and its Symptoms and Causes?

What is urinary tract infections and its Symptoms and Causes?

What is a chronic tract infection?

Chronic urinary tract infections(UTIs) are diseases of the urinary tract that either never responds to treatment or keep recurring. They will either proceed to infect your urinary tract notwithstanding getting the right treatment, or they may recur after treatment. 

Your urinary tract is the pathway that prepares your urinary system. It includes the following:

  • Kidneys filter blood and generate body waste in the form of Urine.
  • Ureters are tubes that send urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • The bladder collects and stores urine.
  • The urethra is the tube that transfers urine from the bladder to the outline of your body.

A UTI can infect any organ of your urinary system. When an infection only infects your bladder, it’s usually a lesser illness that can be easily treated. Yet, if it spreads to your kidneys, you may suffer from serious health consequences and may even need to be hospitalised.

Even though UTIs can happen to anyone at any age, they are more common in women Researches estimates that 1 in 5 young adult women have recurring UTIs.

Symptoms of a chronic urinary tract infection

The symptoms of a chronic UTI attacking your bladder include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Bloody or dark Urine
  • Burning sensation while urinating
  • Pain in your kidneys that is in your lower back or below your ribs
  • Pain in your bladder region 

If at all UTI spreads to your kidneys, it may cause:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Chills
  • A high fever
  • Fatigue
  • Mental disorientation

Causes of chronic urinary tract infections

A UTI is the consequence of a bacterial infection. In almost all cases, the bacteria enter the urinary system through the urethra, and then they multiply in the bladder. It helps to break down UTIs into the bladder and: urethral infections to better understand how they develop. 

Bladder infections: E.coli bacteria is a common cause of infections of the bladder or Cystitis. E.coli commonly reside in the intestines of women. In its healthy state, it doesn’t cause any issue. However, if it determines its way out of the intestines and into the urinary tract, it can lead to infection. It happens when tiny or even microscopic bits of faeces get into the urinary tract which may happen during the sex.

Urinary infections: Which is also known as urethritis of the urethra could be due to the bacteria such as Ecoli. Urethritis can also result o a sexually transmitted infection(STI), however this rare. STI include:

  • Herpes
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Chlamydia

If you find any of the symptoms in you, then take a visit to your private gynaecologist. 

Mrs Sarah Hussain is the leading consultant gynaecologist in London who treat for the women for all gynic related problems. Take an appointment now for your Urinary tract infection. 

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What are Fistulas What are the causes and symptoms

What are Fistulas? What are the causes and symptoms

What are Fistulas?

A fistula is an abnormal connection through a tunnel-like hole within two glands or vessels. Fistulas can occur in several parts of the body. In women, most commonly fistulas involve the genital and urinary tracts and happen due to extended or blocked childbirth, injury during the pelvic surgery, infection, inflammation or radiation treatment in the pelvis and genital area. 

The most common fistulae in women is that occurs between the bladder and vagina, which is known as a vesicovaginal fistula and also the one that occurs between the rectum and vagina known as a rectovaginal fistula. 

  • Vesicovaginal fistula generally associated with urinary incontinence or leakage of urine into the vagina, which is quite severe. 
  • Rectovaginal fistula can lead to faecal incontinence or leakage of faeces into the vagina.

Causes of Fistulas

The most common cause of fistulas is a link between the vagina and the bladder injury during the pelvic surgery, particularly hysterectomy. While the symptoms may occur immediately after the surgery, sometimes they can be delayed for1-2 weeks. Rectovaginal fistula befalls after childbirth connected with a massive vaginal tear. Urogenital and colorectal fistulas also generated by aborting, pelvic ruptures cancer or radiation treatment at the pelvic area; ulcer of the glands near the rectum, rabble-rousing bowel disease such as Crohn’s disorder and ulcerative colitis and infected episiotomies later childbirth.

Symptoms of Fistulas

A vesicovaginal fistula between the bladder and vagina will be painless but will cause troublesome lechery problems which will not be regulated as urine continuously dribbles into the vagina upon entering the bladder. The genital area may become sore or infected, and there may be pain during intercourse.

A woman with a rectovaginal fistula or a leak within the rectum and vagina may involve the way of foul-smelling gas, stool or pus from the vagina, also pain during the intercourse.

Some other symptoms of fistulas are:

  • Frequent infections
  • Diarrhoea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Treatment options of Fistulas

By taking appropriate medical care, fistulas can be treatable and preventable. When you concern your private gynaecologist may ask for the symptoms and what may have caused them. The consultant gynaecologist may conduct physical exams to check for a urinary infection, conduct blood analyses and use a stain to find all spots of leakage. An x-ray or scope may also be done to obtain a bright look and check for all possible tissue damage. The fistulas will not be cured by their own. Some small vesicovaginal fistulas that are detected in the early stage may be healed by setting a catheter in the bladder for a specific time. Surgical repair is the treatment for most fistulas.

By minimally invasive vaginal approach, the vesicovaginal fistula can be repaired. In some situations, a minimally invasive laparoscopic or robotic or open surgical procedure may be considered.

During the surgery, the consultant gynaecologist will check the damaged area for cellulitis, oedema or infection, while eliminating any scar tissue, make sure blood supply is proper. Once the surgery was done, appropriate antibiotics or other medications may be suggested. 

Women should never hesitate to visit the consultant gynaecologist if they experience fistulas. Struggling through symptoms is irrelevant – particularly with the wide variety of ways to diagnose and treat the conditions. To know what diagnosis is best for you, contact us to request an appointment with our private gynaecologist Mrs Sarah Hussain

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Surgical Mesh - Treats Pelvic Floor Disorder

Surgical Mesh – Treats Pelvic Floor Disorder

Women with pelvic floor disorder would likely go for the treatments that involve mesh. The report about complications might have confused or hesitant to seek treatment. Let’s understand how a mesh is used and the possible complications. Before that, we discuss what surgical mesh is? And how is surgical mesh used to treat pelvic floor disorders?

Let’s get into the topic,

What is surgical mesh?

Surgical mesh is a medical product that is used to give more support to weakened or damaged tissue. The surgical mesh is made from synthetic materials or animal tissue. 

How surgical mesh used to treat pelvic floor disorder?

Here is the list where you can use surgical mesh can be used to treat:

  • Pelvic Organ prolapse(POP): If the muscles and ligaments that support woman’s pelvic organs weaken, then the pelvic organs can fall out of the place and bulge down in the vagina. To treat POP, surgical mesh is implanted to strengthen the weakened vaginal wall. Using the mesh, surgery can be done through the abdomen or through the vagina without the use of mesh. 
  • Stress urinary incontinence(SUI): This is the unintentional urine loss because of physical movement or activities such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting, which sets pressure on your urinary bladder. Surgical mesh urethral slings can be implanted through the vagina to support the urethra or bladder neck, which is known as a mid-urethral sling or a mesh sling procedure. 

What are the safety concerns of using surgical mesh to treat pelvic floor disorders?

At every use of mesh carries its own risks and advantages such as: Using surgical mesh via the vagina to treat POP has associated with high rates of mesh-related complications such as mesh poking via vagina skin, pelvic pain and pain during intercourse. If you have transvaginal mesh placed for the surgical repair of POP, continue with your routine care. If you have complications or symptoms, then talk to your private gynaecologist.

If you are planning to have treatment for pelvic floor disorder that involves surgical mesh, be sure to have your consultant private gynaecologist explain all of your options and also their possible risks and benefits. 

Mrs Sarah Hussain is the best private gynaecologist in London deals with woman’s gynic problems and provides the best and world-class treatment. For appointment contact us now. 

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Is postmenopausal bleeding is normal

Is Postmenopausal Bleeding Normal?

When women encounter menopause, usually the women won’t have to bleed through women may sometimes experience additional vaginal bleeding. If she goes through menopause, the gynaecologist will consider it as abnormal bleeding and woman must consult her private gynaecologist. If she finds any spot, she should ask her private gynaecologist. Even if she finds bleeding after sex or if the bleeding very heavy or more than a place spot. The bleeding is irrelevant to an issue with menstruation and may be due to another cause that should be identified. 

Causes of postmenopausal bleeding

Some of the causes of postmenopausal bleeding include:

  • Endometrial atrophy: when the estrogen hormone stops generating due to menopause, then women’s endometrial lining may start to become thinner. As a result, the endometrium lining may bleed.
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia: In this condition, the uterine lining becomes thicker instead of thinner, which causes heavy or irregular bleeding. The reason for this disease is most commonly excess estrogen without the hormone progesterone to balance it. Endometrial hyperplasia sometimes may cause the development of endometrial cancer. 
  • Endometrial cancer: This cancer is caused to the endometrial lining. 10% of postmenopausal women with uterine bleeding experience bleeding due to endometrial cancer.
  • Polyps: These are the growth that can develop in the uterus lining. They are noncancerous but can cause abnormally heavy bleeding. Sometimes these polyps grow inside the cervical canal. There will be bleeding to the women during sex when this polyp occurs.

Other causes of postmenopausal bleeding include:

  • Clotting difficulties
  • endometritis – Infection of the uterine lining
  • pelvis trauma 
  • Bleeding from the urinary tract
  • Thyroid disorders 

Hormone medications such as tamoxifen may lead to postmenopausal bleeding a side effect. Many women will undergo breakthrough bleeding as a result of taking hormone replacement therapy in the first six months. 


A private gynaecologist will conduct a test for postmenopausal bleeding by knowing the woman regarding the symptoms that she is experiencing. A gynaecologist will likely question:

  • When she first recognised symptoms
  • How much does she bleed
  • If she has any family history about the problem of postmenopausal bleeding 

By considering woman’s symptoms, the gynaecologist may recommend one or more of several tests. 

Tests that are handled to diagnose the cause of postmenopausal bleeding include:

  • Endometrial biopsy: In this procedure, you can insert a small, thin tube into the vagina to reach the cervix to take a tissue sample from lining from the uterus. The tissue will be tested to identify the abnormal cells such as cancerous cells. 
  • Dilation and curettage: This involves the dilating or widening the cervix to get the large tissue sample. Even there are special tools called hysteroscope to see inside the uterus to identify any potential growths.
  • Sonohysterography: In this procedure, fluid will be injected through the vagina and into the uterus. The gynaecologist will then use an ultrasound machine which uses sound waves to identify differences in tissues to visualise the uterus is known as a transabdominal ultrasound. The procedure can enable a doctor to define whether the uterine lining is thicker or thinner than expected. 
  • Transvaginal ultrasound: In this procedure, the gynaecologist will insert a specific ultrasound probe into the vagina to enable a doctor to visualise the uterus from the bottom rather than from the lower abdomen. 

Most of these tests can be done at the gynaecologist office, and test like D&C is often performed at hospital or surgency centre.

Treatment options 

Postmenopausal bleeding treatments depends on the underlying cause associated with the bleeding. The consultant gynaecologist can consider the information gathered from the testing to work out the best course of treatment. Some of the treatments for specific underlying causes include: 

  • Polyps: Polyps treatments include surgical removal of the polyps so that they can no longer bleed. 
  • Endometrial cancer: Endometrial cancer treatment includes the removal of the uterus and also the nearby lymph nodes to which cancer can spread. This is known as a hysterectomy. Depending upon cancer’s spread, a woman needs to undergo chemotherapy and radiation treatments.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia: for this treatment, the medication is progestins, which help to prevent the endometrial lining from becoming too thick. However, a gynaecologist will recommend regular testing for cancerous cells inside the uterus to ensure that they do not have endometrial cancer.

If a woman has vaginal bleeding because of the thinning of endometrial tissues, a private gynaecologist may direct vaginal estrogen. This medication can overcome the effects of thinning tissues.

 Mrs Sarah Hussain the female gynaecologist can treat any issues related to postmenopausal bleeding. Book an appointment for details regarding this. 

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Cervical cancer

Cervical Cancer: Every Women Must Know Facts


Pap test is done on the women to find and remove abnormal cells before they turn into cervical cancer. Getting a Pap test was not a fun part of your day. The Pap Test is reasonably easy. But, placing your legs in stirrups can be embarrassing and uncomfortable. Moreover, this Pap test is undoubtedly worth the brief discomfort. 

With cervical cancer extending to affect women worldwide, it’s essential to understand the disease known as silent Killer and what we can make to enhance our chances of beating it. 

Statistics about Cervical Cancer

  • Women of all ages are at danger of cervical cancer. 
  • In the US, about 13000 women were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, and 4000 women are dying as a consequence of this examination.
  • The number of new cases has been decreasing over the past decades’ thanks to the Pap test; Cervical Cancer is still the second most common type of cancer for women worldwide.

Must-know facts about Cervical Cancer 

Here is the list of six facts you need to know about cervical cancer:

  • Most Cervical Cancer cases are Preventable: Cervical cancer is induced by HPV; the easy way to stop cervical cancer is to prevent HPV infection. Likewise, other vaccines, the HPV vaccine helps your immune system to produce an antibody retort that defends your body against the virus. This vaccination is delivered in two or three shots over six months to both males and females age between 9 – 26.
  • Specific strains of HPV cause cancer: HPV is a serious problem, but not all cancer sign HPV is a group of 150 and more related viruses. Men and women have ever had intercourse will get HPV at someday in their lives. Certain strains can cause cervical cancer. Most HPV infections go away without treatment and are not linked to cancer.
  • HPV is the top 1 reason to cause of cervical cancer: Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus, which is a common virus that can be passed from one person to another through sexual activity. It creates any symptoms and can be passed on to others without knowing. 
  • Smoking can increase the risk of cervical cancer: Smoking weakens your immune system, making it more critical for your body to fight HPV infection on its own. There is also proof that long-term use of oral contraceptives as well as being an overweight increase the risk of cervical cancer. 

Cervical Cancer can be polarised. Still, because of steady research, medical experts have come up with some useful results that can pave the way for a higher quality of life and effective treatments. 

Mrs Sarah Hussain is a private gynaecologist who can treat all types of gynic problems with the best solutions. For more information schedule an appointment

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