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What is the cause of adenomyosis?

It was not considered that much malignant or premalignant condition. Adenomyosis can cause debilitating pain and too much menstrual bleeding during periods. This will be detected only through MRI and will be confirmed after surgery through pathology. Hysterectomy is the only treatment to cure adenomyosis. It is a common condition, but it is not that much easily identified by many doctors. There are some specialists, fellowship trained and highly experienced CIGC surgical specialists will treat adenomyosis. They have seen many women who have failed adenomyosis treatment which includes birth control or ablation. Neither of this treatments will be helpful to control the disease. The CIGC specialists will perform minimally invasive hysterectomies using DualportGYN with the risk of complications, quick recovery and low pain.  

Now let us talk What actually the ADENOMYOSIS means?

Adenomyosis is that condition in which the cells that line the inside of the uterus(Endometrium). Which are abnormally located in cells by which the uterine wall is made(Myometrium). By this, the uterus gets enlarged. It causes very painful during the period and also has heavy bleeding.

Whom does it affect?

It is commonly seen in women under age forties or fifties. Nowadays it is seen even in teenagers.

What causes it?

Some of the theories say that the endometrial cells will able to migrate and invade the normal uterine wall this will result in Adenomyosis. Another theory says that cells that are in the uterine wall develop into endometrial cells hence results in adenomyosis. There are many other theories what does this cause

  • Invasive growth of abnormal tissues from endometrial cells that pushes these cells into uterine muscle which may be due to an incision made in the uterus during surgery or uterine functioning.
  • Stem cells int muscle of uterine wall.
  • After childbirth uterine inflammation occurs which results in breaking of cell boundaries that line in the uterus.
  • Extra tissues will be present before birth and grow during the childhood.


It may vary from women to women which can be localized or diffuse, scattered or clustered. Even Though it is not malignant or premalignant condition it will cause pain and severe menstrual bleeding for women. 30% of the women with adenomyosis will not have any symptoms.

Some more symptoms of Adenomyosis are


Until now there is only one way to identify the adenomyosis is hysterectomy and examine the tissue of uterine under a microscope. However, imaging technology becomes very helpful for recognising adenomyosis without surgery. Here are some diagnosis to undergo

  • Doctors using MRI or transvaginal ultrasound can see characteristics of the uterus disease.
  • The first step to take by the doctor if he suspects adenomyosis is the physical exam.
  • Pelvic Exam may reveal the enlarged and tender uterus.
  • Ultrasound is another one which allows the doctor to see the uterus, its lining and muscular wall. Even though ultrasound cannot identify the adenomyosis it will be helpful to rule out the other problems with similar symptoms.
  • Using Sonohysterography in which the saline is injected through a tiny tube into the uterus as an ultrasound.
  • MRI — Which is used to confirm a diagnosis for adenomyosis.

Treatment for Adenomyosis:

  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Hormonal Treatments
  • Endometrial ablation
  • Uterine Artery Embolization
  • MRI – Guided focused ultrasound surgery
  • Hysterectomy

Adenomyosis is not the life-threatening problem. Many treatments are available which helps to alleviate your symptoms. Hysterectomy is the only treatment that is very useful to identify and thus eliminates them altogether. Contact us today to make an appointment with Mrs. Sarah Hussain,Who can palpate your uterus to decide whether there are any expansive masses or growth of the uterus as a result of Adenomyosis and she will assist you to recover your life.

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Voiding Dysfunction Treatment for Female

Voiding dysfunction has much impact on females. Voiding Dysfunction is not normal it is slow or incomplete micturition based on symptoms and urodynamic investigations. It’s better to recognize before its get worse. Here the symptoms listed below.

There are several symptoms for Voiding Dysfunction that embody-

  • Delay in initiating urination
  • Slow urinary flow
  • The sensation of incomplete emptying of the bladder
  • The need to immediately re-void
  • The need to strain to void
  • Dribbling of urine after completing bladder emptying

Symptoms also include frequency, urgency, passing urine more than once incontinence and also urinary tract infection. Some patients may be associated with prolapse of the womb, bladder or rectum.

Causes of Voiding Dysfunction:

There are many causes for voiding dysfunction in women. Some are temporary and some are permanent. The causes include:

  • Drugs such as epidural anaesthesia, oxybutynin, detrital and antidepressants
  • Spinal cord injury and diabetic neuropathy will nerve get damaged.
  • Psychological influences such as anxiety, hysteria, and depression
  • Pelvic surgery and vaginal delivery
  • pelvic organ prolapse, faecal impaction, and urethral narrowing
  • Overdistension of the bladder
  • Inability to relax the urethral sphincter during voiding

Voiding Dysfunction

Investigations of Voiding Dysfunction:

When the patient visits the doctor, the patient needs to tell a detailed history of VD along with the comprehensive urogynaecological and neurological tests to ensure the causes of VD. Here are the various investigations mentioned below:

Uroflowmetry: It is a concept of measuring the urine flow rate during voiding.

Residual Urine Volume: After voiding the amount urine left in the bladder. It is measured either by scanning or by inserting the tube into the bladder to drain out the urine.

Cystometry: Measures the bladder pressure and can diagnose the bladder muscle that not contracting during the voiding

Electromyography: During voiding, it defects the contraction of sphincter muscles.

Radiology: These includes X-rays and ultrasound scan to look for a tumour, diverticulum and foreign body of the bladder.

Cystoscopy: Scanning is done to check for tumours, foreign body, and diverticulum.

Treatment for voiding dysfunction

Prevention and early recognition:

Voiding dysfunction prevention is very important. After pelvic surgery, temporary catheterization will prevent immediate postoperative bladder overdistension. Recognising postnatal urinary retention and catheterization is very important to the quick return of normal urinary function.


Drugs help for treatment of VD. It there is an infection you can use a course of antibiotics or antiseptics. Some may be useful for muscle contraction. Anti-anxiety may be used for patients with anxiety disorders.

Clean Intermittent self Catherisation(CISC):

In CISC, Patient will suggest inserting the urinary catheter at regular intervals under clean conditions. This enables many women to live a normal routine life with efficient emptying, free from discomfort and distress. If any patient not willing to use this CISC may use indwelling catheters.

Surgical treatment:

If a woman with uterine prolapse must be dealt with surgically. In cases where the urethral opening is narrowed, it can be dealt with by using dilated with metal rods called hegar dilators. But there are some disadvantages to using this. In this case, a patient should undergo surgery.

Voiding Dysfunction is common in women. If it was left unrecognized it may cause permanent damage to the bladder and kidneys. So early treatment is must for dealing with promptly.

Voiding dysfunction refers to the inability to exhaust the bladder ordinarily. Numerous people experience the ill effects of such kind of voiding dysfunction, called urinary incontinence. Contact  Mrs. Sarah Hussain, a female gynaecologist, who has specialised in the field of Urogynecology, will offer you treatment options for voiding dysfunction and incontinence.

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What is Female voiding Dysfunction?

The lower urinary tract, that includes the bladder and urethra will for storing and timely expulsion of urine. Voiding dysfunction is described as the conditions where there is a poor interaction between the bladder and muscle and urethra.  Which results in incomplete relaxation and overactivity of pelvic floor muscles during the voiding. Some of the associations and research centres define voiding dysfunction as abnormally slow or incomplete micturition based on symptoms and urodynamic investigations.

There are many symptoms for voiding dysfunction that includes:

  • emptying bladder
  • urinary hesitancy
  • slow urine stream
  • Urinary urgency
  • Urinary frequency
  • Dribbling of urine
  • Nerve dysfunction
  • Non- relaxing pelvic floor muscles.

Basically voiding dysfunction is classified as under activity of the bladder(detrusor) or outflow(urethra). A clinician may suggest tests like uroflowmetry, post-void residual and pressure flow studies.

Treatment will be depending on the aetiology, that includes:

  • pelvic floor therapy
  • intermittent self-catheterization
  • muscle relaxants
  • placement of a neuromodulation device   

From researches, it was said about 6% of women are facing a problem with voiding difficulties that are complex and have several causes. There may not have a complete cure for diagnosis, so, therefore, depending on the symptoms, the treatment will be available and also by minimizing the long-term complications associated with it is the major goal to consider…

Suffering from pain in the pelvic region, painful urination may be pelvic floor dysfunction can lead to discomfort!! Consult the right Doctor, Mrs Sarah Hussain, a female gynaecologist will give you the best treatment!!

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Postmenopausal Bleeding – Causes & Treatment

What is Postmenopause?

The period of time after a woman has experienced 12 consecutive months without menstruation after menopause, is referred to as Postmenopause.

Now in this article, we going to discuss in details about – What are the Postmenopausal Bleeding Causes and the Treatment?

Causes for Postmenopausal Bleeding:

Postmenopausal bleeding can be caused due to the number of problems some of the causes are listed below as such:

Endometrial atrophy:

Due to menopause, the production of hormone estrogen may stop, so women’s endometrial lining may start becoming thinner which leads to bleeding.

Endometrial hyperplasia:

Uterine lining becomes thicker instead of thinner which leads to irregular or heavy bleeding. This condition majorly is seen due to excess estrogen without the hormone progesterone to offset it. Endometrial hyperplasia can lead to the development of endometrial cancer in some situations.

Endometrial cancer:

The endometrial lining will cause this cancer. As per statistics, 10% of women with the postmenopausal problem is due to endometrial cancer.


These are the growths that can develop on the uterus lining. They can cause unusual or heavy bleeding. Polyps will even grow inside the cervical canal due to this woman will experience bleeding during sex.

There are other causes of postmenopausal bleeding include:

  • clotting problems
  • uterine lining infection
  • trauma to the pelvis
  • bleeding from the urinary tract
  • thyroid disorders

Taking hormone replacement therapy within the first 6 months will experience breakthrough bleeding for most women. It’s very important for a woman to see her doctor when she had vaginal bleeding.   

Diagnosis for Postmenopausal Bleeding:

The doctor will ask the woman for symptoms that she experiencing due to postmenopausal bleeding. Depending on the symptoms, a doctor will recommend treatment that includes:

Dilation and curettage (D&C):

In this process dilating or widening the cervix in order to obtain the large tissue samples. Using a tool named Hysteroscope in order to see the uterus inside to identify any potential growths.

Endometrial biopsy:

In this procedure, a small, thin tube will be inserted into the vagina to take samples of tissue lining from the uterus. This test is to check the presence of abnormal cells like cancerous cells.


In this, the doctor will insert a tool that is thin, lighted camera inside the uterus to examine its lining by these he can identify the polyps or abnormal growth.


In this firstly a fluid will be injected through the vagina and into the uterus, then the doctor will use ultrasound machine – that identifies the differences in tissues by using the sound waves in order to visualize the uterus lining is thicker or thinner than the expected. This is called as Transabdominal ultrasound.

Transvaginal ultrasound:

This involves inserting an ultrasound probe into the vagina to visualize the uterine from the bottom instead of from the lower abdomen all this is done by the doctor.

Postmenopausal bleeding should always be taken seriously and investigated meticulously no matter how minimal or insignificant it may appear. In postmenopausal bleeding cases, taking early diagnosis makes the successful treatment of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. Endometrial sampling must be considered for the therapeutic gesture. Importance must be given to introducing screening methods for cervical cancer such as cervicography, gyroscope. To conclude from the above content it is very clear that every woman needs to be conscious of her menstrual periods.

Suffering with Irregular time of periods for more than one year ago? Postmenopausal bleeding is the most well-known exhibiting side effect of endometrial cancer and ought to dependably be respected with doubt and investigated instantly.Consult Mrs Sarah Hussain, a female Gynaecology specialist, helps you to detect any other conditions early on, including cancer.

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Is there any PreMenstrual Syndrome Diet Plan?

As food plays a vital role in our daily life especially for women. Every woman should follow the certain diet in order to overcome PMS problems. 

“Let food be thy medicine

Here in the below section, I will be providing the diet to follow and exercise for 30 to 45 minutes, four to five days per week to control PMS problem.

Diet Changes That Help You Fight PreMenstrual Syndrome:

Reduce salt:

Cooking food with less salt and avoiding fast food or processed food.

Eating less salt for patients with bloating, breast tenderness and swollen hand.

Eat all varieties of fruits and vegetables, especially leafy vegetables:

As fruits and vegetables consist of more proteins and vitamins. This plays a vital role to control PMS. Vegetables like Turnip and leafy are rich in iron and vitamin B, which can be more helpful for fatigue problem.

Consuming plenty of water:

Water is the major source for the body, which acts as antinode for PMS problem. Drinking water up to 5 litres daily will be more helpful to other health issues too. Having flavoured water like lemon, lime, cucumber slices will also be useful.

Consume more calcium products:

Eating foods like milk, yoghurt, paneer, soya and low-fat cheese can reduce PMS symptoms.

Vitamin D supplements:

Eating vitamin D foods like oysters salmon, etc I recommend these foods where vitamin D is available naturally.

Eat Carbs:

Some of the carbs are complex as these are rich in fibre which will increase the bloodstream gradually. Foods like sweet potatoes, squash, pumpkin, and unprocessed oats will also help.

Nuts as Snacks:

Nuts like walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts are more helpful to control PMS symptoms. As these nuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

Whole grains:

Whole grains are rich in proteins and vitamins which is more helpful for PMS control.

In cases, eating the right food and exercising aren’t that much enough to help women, but also consulting doctor and having medication is also helpful in some aspects. Following good food will make our health be cool.

Prevention is better than Cure”

A small number of women with premenstrual syndrome have disabling symptoms every month. The symptoms of PMS are affecting your health and daily activities trust Mrs.Sarah Hussain, a female gynaecologist. She will take care for the specific needs of your problem to resolve it. Contact us to book your appointment online today.

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