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Woman in Menopause

What are the complications of menopause? How to diagnose? & What are Treatments?

After menopause is defined, then the risk of certain medical conditions increases. Let’s see the complications that occur due to the menopause.

Complications Caused by Menopause


  • Heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease: When your estrogen levels reduce, then your risk of cardiovascular disease increases.
  • Osteoporosis: This causes bones to become brittle and weak, that leads to an increased risk of fractures. During the initial few years after menopause, you will lose bone density at a rapid rate, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. In Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis are especially susceptible to fractures of their spine, hips and wrists.
  • Urinary indulgence: As the tissues of your vagina and urethra lose pliability, you may experience frequent, sudden, strong urges to urinate, followed by an involuntary loss of urine or the loss of urine with coughing, laughing or lifting. You may have a tract infections more often.
  • Sexual function: Vaginal dryness from decreased moisture production and loss of elasticity can cause trouble and slight bleeding during sexual intercourse. Also, the reduced response may lessen your desire for sexual activity
  • Weight growth: Many women gain weight during the menopausal change and after menopause because metabolism decreases. You may require to eat less and exercise more, just to maintain your current weight.


Signs and symptoms of menopause are normally enough to tell most women that they’ve started the menopausal transition. If you have worries about irregular periods or hot flashes, talk with your doctor. In some cases, further evaluation may be recommended.

Tests typically aren’t needed to diagnose menopause. But under certain conditions, your doctor may recommend blood tests to check your levels:

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrogen (estradiol), because your FSH levels rise and estradiol levels decline as menopause occurs
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), because an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) can cause signs similar to those of menopause.

Over the counter, home tests to check FSH levels in your urine are possible. The tests could tell you whether you have hoisted FSH levels and might be in the perimenopause or menopause. But, since FSH levels rise and drop during the course of your menstrual cycle, home FSH tests can’t really tell you whether or not you’re definitely in a stage of menopause.


Menopause needs no medical treatment. Instead, treatments focus on releasing your signs and symptoms and checking or managing chronic conditions that may occur with ageing. Treatments may include:

  • Hormone therapy
  • Vaginal estrogen
  • Low-dose antidepressants
  • Gabapentin (Neurontin, Gralise, others
  • Clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay, others)
  • Medications to prevent or treat osteoporosis

Before choosing on any form of treatment, talk with your doctor about your choices and the perils and benefits involved with each. Review your options yearly, as your needs and treatment options may change. Request for an appointment at Mygynae with Mrs Sarah Hussain. Contact now.

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What is Menopause, Causes, Symptoms and Stages of Menopause?

What is Menopause?

A menopause is a normal condition that all women experience at a point in time when menstrual cycles cease permanently due to the natural depletion of ovarian oocytes from ageing. Any of the changes a woman goes through either just before or after she stops or misses for 12 consecutive months, marking the end of her reproductive period and the average age of menopause is 51 years.

What Causes Menopause?

In general, a woman is born with a limited number of eggs, which are stored in the ovaries. The ovaries also make the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which regulates menstruation and ovulation. Menopause occurs when the ovaries no longer deliver an egg every month and menstruation stops.

causes of menopause

Menopause is regarded as a normal part of ageing when it occurs after the age of 40. But some women can go by menopause early, either as a consequence of surgery, such as hysterectomy, or damage to the ovaries, such as from chemotherapy. Menopause that falls before 40, despite the cause, is called premature menopause.

What are the stages of Menopause?

Natural Menopause is not occurred on by any type of medical or surgical treatment. The process is continuous and has three stages:



Perimenopause: This starts many years before menopause when the ovaries slowly make less estrogen. Perimenopause remains until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last 1 to 2 years of perimenopause, the decrease in estrogen quickens. And at this stage, many women have menopause symptoms.

Menopause: This is the case when it’s been a year since a woman last had her last menstrual period. At this stage, the ovaries have stopped releasing eggs and thus making most of their estrogen.

Postmenopause: These are the years after menopause. During this stage, menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes help for most women. But health risks like loss of estrogen rise as the woman ages.

What are the Symptoms of Menopause?


When it starts usually, the first sign may be an unusual menstrual cycle. Once it gets irregular, it should stop completely within about 4 years. You may also notice these symptoms:

  • Mood swings
  • Lower sex drive
  • Hot flashes
  • Sweating
  • Racing heart
  • Headaches
  • Vaginal dryness and soreness
  • Painful sex
  • Trouble sleeping

Some symptoms can end for years and affect your quality of life.

A number of treatments can help lesser risks that are linked with these conditions. Get the appointment now with Mrs Sarah Hussain the best gynaecologist from London can handle any gynec related issues. Contact now.

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what are the Diagnosis, treatment and Prevention tips for Vulvar Pain?

It’s very important to talk openly with the doctor about the vulvar pain. Vulvar pain can affect your lifestyle and relationships. The doctor will assist you to identify the cause of your pain so that you can begin treatment.

Here in this article, we gonna talk about the Diagnosis, treatment and prevention tips for Vulvar pain.

Let’s see first

Diagnosis for Vulvar Pain

The doctor may investigate your medical and sexual history. Here are some questions:

  • you’ve been treated for vaginal infections
  • your pain is worse with sex
  • you have vaginal dryness

There will be some pelvic exam to look for the signs of inflammation of infection. They also take tissue samples to test for a bacterial or yeast infection. They may use the cotton swab to gently probe the vaginal area to help resolve if your pain is generalized or located in only one point.

Treatments For Vulvar Pain

If the infection is causing you pain, your doctor will treat it. If the pain caused due to the allergic reaction to the product, your doctor will recommend you stop using that product. They may also prescribe an anti-inflammatory cream.

If no cause was found for your pain, your doctor will help you manage the pain. They may suggest some of the following treatments:

  • Pain reducing creams, such as those containing lidocaine, applied directly to the skin
  • low-dose tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) to help block pain receptors
  • anticonvulsants, which may also work likewise TCAs
  • biofeedback, in which sensors placed in the vagina send impulses to help you strengthen your pelvic floor muscles and teach you how to relax them
  • massage to relax tight muscles and contracted areas
  • cognitive behaviour therapy, a type of psychological therapy, to help you manage chronic pain.

Surgery will be in rare cases for women with the pain around the vaginal vestibule or opening. The idea will involve removing irritated tissue, is called a vestibulectomy.

Tips for prevention

There are a few things you may be able to do to help prevent vulvar pain. Try these:

  • Wear 100 % cotton underwear. It’s more absorbent than synthetic materials. Avoid wearing underwear to bed.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothes in the vulvar area.
  • Clean the vulvar area with water only. Never use soaps, shampoos, and perfumed products that could contain irritants.
  • Avoid tampons and sanitary pads with deodorants. Instead, opt for odour feminine hygienic products.
  • Use a vaginal cream during sex, especially if you have vaginal dryness.
  • If your skin is especially dry, gently apply a thin coat of petroleum jelly to the vulva after bathing to seal in moisture and add a protective layer to skin.
  • Gently clean and pat dry your vulva after urinating. Wash front to back, towards the anus, so you don’t bring germs from the anus toward your vagina.
  • If the vulva is weak or painful, apply a cool gel pack.

If you regularly facing pain, talk to your doctor. It may be due to an underlying health that requires treatment.

Want to get effective treatment? Inquire help from a gynaecologist, gynecologic urologist or a pain management specialist Mrs Sarah Hussain. Get an appointment now.

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vulvar pain

What Vulvar Pain? Types, Symptoms and Causes of Vulvar Pain

Most of the women feel pain and discomfort in the vulva at some point of time in their lives. When the pain is tenacious for more than three months and has no clear cause, it’s called vulvodynia. It’s figured that more than 16percent of women will have vulvodynia at some point in their lives. This Vulvodynia can occur at any age, but recent researches have found that women between 20 to 40 years age group are facing this problem.


what is Vulva?

The vulva is the tissue that is around the opening to the vagina which includes the outer folds of skin, called the labia majora, and the inner folds called labia minora.

Other parts include:

  • The vestibule, which begins to the vaginal opening
  • The clitoris, a highly delicate organ at the top of the vulva

Now let’s talk about

Types of Vulvar Pain

types of vulvar pain

There are four types of vulvar pain.

  • Generalized Vulvodynia – It starts instinctively. It lets general vulvar pain and can last for days, months or even years at a time.
  • Localized Vulvodynia – The pain that occurs centre around the area in the vulva. This pain usually appears and then disappears. Let’s know with an example. The pain may be at folds or lips of the vagina.
  • Cyclic Vulvitis – The pain generally tends to be serious right before monthly menstruation starts. This pain usually comes and goes with the woman’s menstrual cycle.
  • Vestibulodynia – This pain befalls at the opening or vestibule of the vagina.

Symptoms of vulvar pain

Most women with this pain come with the report as burning, stinging, or palpitating discomfort in the vaginal area. The pain is consistent at sometimes. At some other cases, it’s will feel like there is pressure in the area, that may be caused by:

  • Sex
  • Inserting a tampon
  • Sitting
  • Wearing tight, form-fitting pants

The vulvar tissue will always look healthy and normal in people with vulvar pain.

Causes of Vulvar Pain


Vulvar pain is not that much well understood. Vulvar pain is not infectious, nor it spread through sex. It’s not even a sign of cancer. Researchers have seen a link between vulvar pain and some situations and factors in some women, as follows.

  • Recurrent Yeast Infection
  • Genetic Disorder
  • Physical or sexual trauma
  • Chronic Pain Conditions
  • Allergies
  • Hormone Therapy

Effective Treatment does exist. Ask help from a Specialist Gynocologist Mrs Sarah Hussian who can assist you with the best treatment for your problem. Reach us for an appointment here.

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what are the Types of menstrual disorders?

With each menstrual cycle, the uterine lining(endometrium) prepares itself to sustain a fetus. If fertilization doesn’t occur, the body emits the endometrium during the monthly cycle. In some situations, an irregularity can occur in this cycle, designating any of the following menstrual disorders.

Types of Menstrual Disorders


  • Premenstrual Syndrome(PMS)
  • Amenorrhea

  • Dysmenorrhea

  • Menorrhagia


Premenstrual Syndrome(PMS)

PMS is an Unpleasant or uncomfortable symptom during your cycle that may temporarily disrupt normal functioning. These symptoms may last from a few hours to many days, and the types and severity of symptoms can differ in individuals.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder(PMDD) is a much more rigorous form of PMS  which approximately 3 – 8% of women of reproductive age. PMDD requires treatment by a physician. According to researches, nearly 85% of women experience at least one common symptoms so extreme they are disabled by the condition.   

Although each individual may undergo symptoms differently, the most common symptoms of PMS can include any of the following:

  • Psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, irritability)
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms (bloating)
  • Fluid retention (swelling of fingers, ankles and feet)
  • Skin problems (acne)
  • headache
  • Vertigo
  • Fainting
  • Muscle spasms
  • Heart palpitations
  • Allergies
  • Infections
  • Vision problems
  • Eye infections
  • Decreased coordination
  • Diminished libido (sex drive)
  • Changes in appetite
  • Hot flashes

Simple changes in lifestyle can help reduce or eliminate the rigour of symptoms, including:

  • Exercising 3 to 5 times each week
  • Eating a well-balanced diet that includes whole grains, vegetables and fruit, and a decreasing salt, sugar, caffeine and alcohol intake
  • Getting adequate sleep and rest


Amenorrhea is defined by absent menstrual periods for more than three monthly menstrual cycles. There are two types of amenorrhea:

Types of Amenorrhea
  • Primary amenorrhea: Menstruation does not begin at puberty.
  • Secondary amenorrhea: common and regular menstrual periods which become increasingly unusual and irregular or absent. This may be due to a physical cause typically of later origin.

Amenorrhea can occur for a number of reasons as part of the normal course of life, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding or menopause. Or, it may occur as a result of prescriptions or a medical problem including:

  • Ovulation abnormality
  • Birth defect, anatomical abnormality or other medical condition
  • Eating disorder
  • Obesity
  • Excessive or strenuous exercise
  • Thyroid disorder

If at least three sequential menstrual periods are missed or if you’ve never had a menstrual period and are 16 years or older, it is important to see a healthcare expert. As with any condition, early analysis and medication are very important.


Dysmenorrhea is described by severe and regular menstrual cramps and pain associated with menstruation. The problem of dysmenorrhea is dependent on if the condition is primary or secondary. With primary dysmenorrheal, women encounter abnormal uterine contractions resulting from a chemical imbalance in the body. Secondary dysmenorrhea is generated by other medical conditions, most often endometriosis. Other possible causes may include:

  • pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • uterine fibroids
  • abnormal pregnancy (i.e., miscarriage, ectopic)
  • infection, tumours, or polyps in the pelvic cavity

Any woman can produce dysmenorrhea, but those who are at an increased risk include:

  • Smokers
  • Those who consume excessive alcohol during their period
  • Women who are overweight
  • Women who began menstruating before the age of 11
Dysmenorrhea Symptoms

The most general symptoms may include:

  • Cramping or pain in the lower abdomen
  • Low back pain or pain radiating down the legs
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Fainting
  • Headaches


Menorrhagia is the most general type of unusual uterine bleeding and is characterized by heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding. In some instances, bleeding may be so critical that daily activities are disrupted.

Another type of this condition, also called dysfunctional uterine bleeding, may include:

  • Polymenorrhea: Too frequent menstruation.
  • Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual cycles
  • Metrorrhagia: Any unusual, non-menstrual bleeding as in bleeding which occurs between menstrual periods
  • Postmenopausal bleeding:  Bleeding that occurs more than one year subsequent the last menstrual period at menopause.

There are several possible causes of menorrhagia, including:

  • Hormonal Menorrhagia Causes imbalance
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Abnormal pregnancy; i.e., miscarriage, ectopic (tubal pregnancy)
  • Infection, tumours or polyps in the pelvic cavity
  • Certain birth control devices; i.e., intrauterine devices (IUDs)
  • Bleeding or platelet disorders
  • High levels of prostaglandins (chemical substances used to control muscle contractions of the uterus)
  • Huge levels of endothelins (chemical substances used to dilate blood vessels)
  • Liver, kidney or thyroid disease
Menorrhagia Symptoms

Common symptoms of menorrhagia are when a woman has drowned through enough sanitary napkins or tampons to change for every one hour, and/or a woman’s menstrual period lasts longer than 7 days in duration. Other standard symptoms include spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods, or spotting or bleeding during pregnancy.

Most of the women with ample menstrual bleeding can cause their condition for hormones. Here are the different types of menstrual disorders and their symptoms. If you identify any symptoms in you schedule an appointment with Mrs Sarah Hussain can help you figure out what kind of treatment is necessary in order to reduce or relieve from your problem.


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