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What is Poly cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)? What are the Causes?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS) is a condition that influences a woman’s hormone levels. Women with PCOS give higher than normal amounts of male hormones. This hormone irregularity causes them to skip menstrual periods.

PCOS also causes hair growth on the face, body, and baldness. It can extend to long-term health problems like diabetes and heart disease. Pills for birth control and diabetes drugs can help fix the hormone imbalance and improve symptoms. Read on for a glance at the causes of PCOS and its effects on a woman’s body.

What is PCOS?

PCOS is a problem with hormones that affects women during their childbearing years(ages between 15 to 44). Between 2.2 and 26.7 % of women in this age group have PCOS. Many of the women have PCOS but unaware of it. One of the serves declared that up to 70% of women with PCOS hadn’t diagnosed.

What is PCOS

PCOS influence a woman’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone – hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle. The ovaries also allow a small number of male hormones called androgens
The ovaries deliver eggs to be fertilized by a man’s sperm. The discharge of an egg each month is known as ovulation.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) restraint ovulation. FSH spurs the ovary to give a follicle — a pouch that contains an egg — and then LH triggers the ovary to release a mature egg.
PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that changes the ovaries and ovulation. Its three main features are:

  • cysts in the ovaries
  • high levels of male hormones
  • irregular or skipped periods

In PCOS, many tiny, fluid-filled cysts grow inside the ovaries. The word “polycystic” means “many vesicles.”
These sacs are actually follicles, each one carrying an immature egg. The eggs never mature sufficiently to trigger ovulation.

The lack of ovulation adjusts levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH. Estrogen and progesterone levels are below than usual, while androgen levels are steeper than usual. Extra male hormones upset the menstrual cycle, so women with PCOS get fewer periods than usual.

Causes of PCOS

Doctors don’t know accurately what effects PCOS. They assume that high levels of male hormones stop the ovaries from generating hormones and producing eggs normally.

pcos cuases

Genes, insulin stability, and inflammation have all been linked to excess androgen generation.

  • Genes

Studies show that PCOS appears in families. It’s likely that many genes — not just one — provide to the condition.

  • Insulin resistance

Up to 70% of women with PCOS have insulin resistance, meaning that their cells can’t use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone the pancreas contributes to support the body use sugar from foods for energy. When cells can’t use insulin properly, the body’s demand for insulin raise. The pancreas makes more insulin to neutralize. Extra insulin triggers the ovaries to generate more male hormones. Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance. Both obesity and insulin resistance can increase your peril for type 2 diabetes.

  • Inflammation

Women with PCOS often have grown levels of inflammation in their body. Being overweight can also provide to inflammation. Studies have associated excess inflammation to important androgen levels.

There are a few more factors that cause the PCOS for the Women.


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects up to almost 27 % of women during their childbearing years. It involves cysts in the ovaries, huge levels of male hormones, and random periods.

If you are facing this PCOS and are searching for the best Gynae. Here you come, Mrs Sarah Hussain, one of the best one of the popular gynaecology to overcome your PCOS problem. Get an appointment now or Contact us today.

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Woman in Menopause

What are the complications of menopause? How to diagnose? & What are Treatments?

After menopause is defined, then the risk of certain medical conditions increases. Let’s see the complications that occur due to the menopause.

Complications Caused by Menopause


  • Heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease: When your estrogen levels reduce, then your risk of cardiovascular disease increases.
  • Osteoporosis: This causes bones to become brittle and weak, that leads to an increased risk of fractures. During the initial few years after menopause, you will lose bone density at a rapid rate, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. In Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis are especially susceptible to fractures of their spine, hips and wrists.
  • Urinary indulgence: As the tissues of your vagina and urethra lose pliability, you may experience frequent, sudden, strong urges to urinate, followed by an involuntary loss of urine or the loss of urine with coughing, laughing or lifting. You may have a tract infections more often.
  • Sexual function: Vaginal dryness from decreased moisture production and loss of elasticity can cause trouble and slight bleeding during sexual intercourse. Also, the reduced response may lessen your desire for sexual activity
  • Weight growth: Many women gain weight during the menopausal change and after menopause because metabolism decreases. You may require to eat less and exercise more, just to maintain your current weight.


Signs and symptoms of menopause are normally enough to tell most women that they’ve started the menopausal transition. If you have worries about irregular periods or hot flashes, talk with your doctor. In some cases, further evaluation may be recommended.

Tests typically aren’t needed to diagnose menopause. But under certain conditions, your doctor may recommend blood tests to check your levels:

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrogen (estradiol), because your FSH levels rise and estradiol levels decline as menopause occurs
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), because an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) can cause signs similar to those of menopause.

Over the counter, home tests to check FSH levels in your urine are possible. The tests could tell you whether you have hoisted FSH levels and might be in the perimenopause or menopause. But, since FSH levels rise and drop during the course of your menstrual cycle, home FSH tests can’t really tell you whether or not you’re definitely in a stage of menopause.


Menopause needs no medical treatment. Instead, treatments focus on releasing your signs and symptoms and checking or managing chronic conditions that may occur with ageing. Treatments may include:

  • Hormone therapy
  • Vaginal estrogen
  • Low-dose antidepressants
  • Gabapentin (Neurontin, Gralise, others
  • Clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay, others)
  • Medications to prevent or treat osteoporosis

Before choosing on any form of treatment, talk with your doctor about your choices and the perils and benefits involved with each. Review your options yearly, as your needs and treatment options may change. Request for an appointment at Mygynae with Mrs Sarah Hussain. Contact now.

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What is Menopause, Causes, Symptoms and Stages of Menopause?

What is Menopause?

A menopause is a normal condition that all women experience at a point in time when menstrual cycles cease permanently due to the natural depletion of ovarian oocytes from ageing. Any of the changes a woman goes through either just before or after she stops or misses for 12 consecutive months, marking the end of her reproductive period and the average age of menopause is 51 years.

What Causes Menopause?

In general, a woman is born with a limited number of eggs, which are stored in the ovaries. The ovaries also make the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which regulates menstruation and ovulation. Menopause occurs when the ovaries no longer deliver an egg every month and menstruation stops.

causes of menopause

Menopause is regarded as a normal part of ageing when it occurs after the age of 40. But some women can go by menopause early, either as a consequence of surgery, such as hysterectomy, or damage to the ovaries, such as from chemotherapy. Menopause that falls before 40, despite the cause, is called premature menopause.

What are the stages of Menopause?

Natural Menopause is not occurred on by any type of medical or surgical treatment. The process is continuous and has three stages:



Perimenopause: This starts many years before menopause when the ovaries slowly make less estrogen. Perimenopause remains until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last 1 to 2 years of perimenopause, the decrease in estrogen quickens. And at this stage, many women have menopause symptoms.

Menopause: This is the case when it’s been a year since a woman last had her last menstrual period. At this stage, the ovaries have stopped releasing eggs and thus making most of their estrogen.

Postmenopause: These are the years after menopause. During this stage, menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes help for most women. But health risks like loss of estrogen rise as the woman ages.

What are the Symptoms of Menopause?


When it starts usually, the first sign may be an unusual menstrual cycle. Once it gets irregular, it should stop completely within about 4 years. You may also notice these symptoms:

  • Mood swings
  • Lower sex drive
  • Hot flashes
  • Sweating
  • Racing heart
  • Headaches
  • Vaginal dryness and soreness
  • Painful sex
  • Trouble sleeping

Some symptoms can end for years and affect your quality of life.

A number of treatments can help lesser risks that are linked with these conditions. Get the appointment now with Mrs Sarah Hussain the best gynaecologist from London can handle any gynec related issues. Contact now.

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what are the Diagnosis, treatment and Prevention tips for Vulvar Pain?

It’s very important to talk openly with the doctor about the vulvar pain. Vulvar pain can affect your lifestyle and relationships. The doctor will assist you to identify the cause of your pain so that you can begin treatment.

Here in this article, we gonna talk about the Diagnosis, treatment and prevention tips for Vulvar pain.

Let’s see first

Diagnosis for Vulvar Pain

The doctor may investigate your medical and sexual history. Here are some questions:

  • you’ve been treated for vaginal infections
  • your pain is worse with sex
  • you have vaginal dryness

There will be some pelvic exam to look for the signs of inflammation of infection. They also take tissue samples to test for a bacterial or yeast infection. They may use the cotton swab to gently probe the vaginal area to help resolve if your pain is generalized or located in only one point.

Treatments For Vulvar Pain

If the infection is causing you pain, your doctor will treat it. If the pain caused due to the allergic reaction to the product, your doctor will recommend you stop using that product. They may also prescribe an anti-inflammatory cream.

If no cause was found for your pain, your doctor will help you manage the pain. They may suggest some of the following treatments:

  • Pain reducing creams, such as those containing lidocaine, applied directly to the skin
  • low-dose tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) to help block pain receptors
  • anticonvulsants, which may also work likewise TCAs
  • biofeedback, in which sensors placed in the vagina send impulses to help you strengthen your pelvic floor muscles and teach you how to relax them
  • massage to relax tight muscles and contracted areas
  • cognitive behaviour therapy, a type of psychological therapy, to help you manage chronic pain.

Surgery will be in rare cases for women with the pain around the vaginal vestibule or opening. The idea will involve removing irritated tissue, is called a vestibulectomy.

Tips for prevention

There are a few things you may be able to do to help prevent vulvar pain. Try these:

  • Wear 100 % cotton underwear. It’s more absorbent than synthetic materials. Avoid wearing underwear to bed.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothes in the vulvar area.
  • Clean the vulvar area with water only. Never use soaps, shampoos, and perfumed products that could contain irritants.
  • Avoid tampons and sanitary pads with deodorants. Instead, opt for odour feminine hygienic products.
  • Use a vaginal cream during sex, especially if you have vaginal dryness.
  • If your skin is especially dry, gently apply a thin coat of petroleum jelly to the vulva after bathing to seal in moisture and add a protective layer to skin.
  • Gently clean and pat dry your vulva after urinating. Wash front to back, towards the anus, so you don’t bring germs from the anus toward your vagina.
  • If the vulva is weak or painful, apply a cool gel pack.

If you regularly facing pain, talk to your doctor. It may be due to an underlying health that requires treatment.

Want to get effective treatment? Inquire help from a gynaecologist, gynecologic urologist or a pain management specialist Mrs Sarah Hussain. Get an appointment now.

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vulvar pain

What Vulvar Pain? Types, Symptoms and Causes of Vulvar Pain

Most of the women feel pain and discomfort in the vulva at some point of time in their lives. When the pain is tenacious for more than three months and has no clear cause, it’s called vulvodynia. It’s figured that more than 16percent of women will have vulvodynia at some point in their lives. This Vulvodynia can occur at any age, but recent researches have found that women between 20 to 40 years age group are facing this problem.


what is Vulva?

The vulva is the tissue that is around the opening to the vagina which includes the outer folds of skin, called the labia majora, and the inner folds called labia minora.

Other parts include:

  • The vestibule, which begins to the vaginal opening
  • The clitoris, a highly delicate organ at the top of the vulva

Now let’s talk about

Types of Vulvar Pain

types of vulvar pain

There are four types of vulvar pain.

  • Generalized Vulvodynia – It starts instinctively. It lets general vulvar pain and can last for days, months or even years at a time.
  • Localized Vulvodynia – The pain that occurs centre around the area in the vulva. This pain usually appears and then disappears. Let’s know with an example. The pain may be at folds or lips of the vagina.
  • Cyclic Vulvitis – The pain generally tends to be serious right before monthly menstruation starts. This pain usually comes and goes with the woman’s menstrual cycle.
  • Vestibulodynia – This pain befalls at the opening or vestibule of the vagina.

Symptoms of vulvar pain

Most women with this pain come with the report as burning, stinging, or palpitating discomfort in the vaginal area. The pain is consistent at sometimes. At some other cases, it’s will feel like there is pressure in the area, that may be caused by:

  • Sex
  • Inserting a tampon
  • Sitting
  • Wearing tight, form-fitting pants

The vulvar tissue will always look healthy and normal in people with vulvar pain.

Causes of Vulvar Pain


Vulvar pain is not that much well understood. Vulvar pain is not infectious, nor it spread through sex. It’s not even a sign of cancer. Researchers have seen a link between vulvar pain and some situations and factors in some women, as follows.

  • Recurrent Yeast Infection
  • Genetic Disorder
  • Physical or sexual trauma
  • Chronic Pain Conditions
  • Allergies
  • Hormone Therapy

Effective Treatment does exist. Ask help from a Specialist Gynocologist Mrs Sarah Hussian who can assist you with the best treatment for your problem. Reach us for an appointment here.

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