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What is PMB?

Menopause is the time after you have your last period. Post-menopausal bleeding(PMB) is vaginal bleeding or Spotting that happens at least 12 months after a woman has stopped having menstrual cycles due to menopause.

PMB is not pertinent to young women having amenorrhoea (absence of menstrual periods) due to anorexia nervosa or having a pregnancy followed by lactation. PMB may be related to those young women who are suffering from premature ovarian failure or premature menopause. Vaginal bleeding is a symptom of PMB.

 

Causes of PMB

  • Atrophy– This occurs when the vagina and pelvic organs become depleted of oestrogen which is a hormone produced by the ovaries and in much lower quantities after the menopause. The lack of this hormone leads to thinning of the vaginal skin and blood vessels come nearer to the surface, which can lead to soreness and bleeding.
  • Polyp – Cervical or womb polyps are tissue growths that are formed in the cervix (neck of the womb) or the womb itself.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia– A thickened womb lining which can be caused by hormone replacement therapy (HRT), high levels of oestrogen or by being overweight; if left untreated this can lead to development of womb cancer(also known as endometrial cancer).
  • Uterine fibroids.
  • Infection of the uterine lining (endometritis).
  • Medications such as hormone therapy and tamoxifen.
  • Pelvic trauma.
  • Bleeding from the urinary tract or rectum.
  • Excessive overgrowth of the cells that make up the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia).

 

Post menopausal bleeding needs to be checked out by a doctor. Mostly it is a sign of a minor health problem but can sometimes be an early sign of more serious disease. It’s important to make the diagnosis as early as possible. Are you experiencing any problem related to PMB then immediately Contact Sarah Husain for better solution and treatment.

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What is PMS ?

Pre Menstrual Syndrome(PMS) is a condition in women where certain symptoms occur each month before a period which is usually at peak in the 3-7 days before a period .PMS is sometimes called premenstrual tension (PMT) or premenstrual disorder (PMD). It is the cyclic occurrence of symptoms that are sufficiently severe to interfere with some aspects of life, that appear with consistent and predictable relationship to the menses.

Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome 

Physical Symptoms of PMS includes
  • Food and alcohol cravings.
  • Headache
  • Skin problems.
  • Swollen joints, particularly ankles.
  • Water retention.                                                           
  • Weakness.
  • Weight gain
  • Headache
  • Backache
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Breast pain
  • Trouble in sleeping (Insomnia)
  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain related to fluid retention
 Psychological (Mental) Symptoms of PMS
  • Decreased sex drive.
  • Depression.
  • Insomnia.
  • Irritability.
  • Poor concentration.
  • Weepiness.
  • Tiredness
  • Anger
  • Anxiety
  • Loss of confidence

 Causes for PMS

The main cause for PMS is fluctuating levels of hormones including Estrogen and Progesterone that occur in preparation for menstruation. An increase in these hormones can cause mood swings, anxiety and irritability.

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There are some Lifestyle factors that are associated with PMS which includes:

  • Weight and Exercise
  • Diet
  • Stress
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • Disrupted sodium metabolism
  • Abnormal neurotransmitter response

PMS can have a significant impact on your life. Are you experiencing any such issues associated with PMS, then immediately book an appointment with Sarah Hussain who offers the precise solution that is effective and gets to the root of the problem, to resolve the issue completely.
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Menstrual Disorders

Menstruation is that time of the month when a woman’s womb (uterus) sheds its lining, causing bleeding through the vagina. It  usually lasts for about 3 to 5 days. But it differs from woman to woman. A menstrual disorder is an irregular condition in a woman’s menstrual cycle. It may lead to absence of periods or infrequent periods.

Types of Menstrual Disorders: 

Following are some of the common Menstrual Disorders:

Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB): AUB includes heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), no menstrual bleeding (amenorrhea) or bleeding in between periods (metrorrhagia).

Heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) could be caused by:

Amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstrual periods which can be classified as:

  • Primary (when menstrual periods have not started by age 15 years)
  • Secondary (when menstrual periods are absent for more than three to six months in a woman who previously had periods)

Dysmenorrhea (Painful menstrual periods): Most women must have experienced menstrual cramps before or during their period at some or the other point of their lives. Cramps are especially painful and persistent and this condition is called as dysmenorrhea. Pain and menstrual cramps is caused by uterine contractions, triggered by prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that are produced by the uterine lining cells and circulate in bloodstream.

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Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) : PMS is a term commonly used to describe a wide variety of physical and psychological symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle. Some of the Symptoms include:

  • Bloating
  • Swollen, Painful Breasts
  • Fatigue
  • Constipation
  • Headaches
  • Clumsiness
  • Anger
  • Anxiety Or Confusion
  • Mood Swings And Tension
  • Crying and depression
  • Inability to concentrate

PMS appears to be caused by rising and falling levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which may influence brain chemicals, including serotonin, a substance that has a strong effect on mood.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD):  Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Women who experience PMDD may have abnormal reactions to normal hormone changes that occur with each menstrual cycle. This may include fluctuation of estrogen and progesterone levels that normally occurs with menstruation, causing a serotonin deficiency .Most common symptoms of PMDD are

  • Heightened Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Mood Swings
  • Decreased Interest In Usual Activities
  • Difficulty in Concentrating
  • Fatigue
  • Change In Appetite
  • Feeling Out Of Control Or Overwhelmed
  • Sleep Problems

Causes of Menstrual Disorders:

Following are some of the primary causes of Menstrual Disorders:

  • Adolescence
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Eating disorders
  • Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism
  • Hyperprolactinemia (an abnormally high concentration in the blood of prolactin, a protein hormone)
  • Medications, such as antiepileptic’s or antipsychotics
  • Perimenopause
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Platelet disorders
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Advanced liver disease
  • Smoking
  • Depression
  • Endometriosis
  • Chronic uterine infection

 Are you suffering with Menstrual disorders? Don’t delay to contact Sarah Hussain for better treatment and get your Menstrual Issues solved.

 

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What is Voiding Dysfunction?

Voiding dysfunction is a condition where there is poor coordination between the bladder muscle and the urethra which results in incomplete relaxation or over activity of the pelvic floor muscles during voiding. In voiding dysfunction condition, the urethra does not relax when the bladder muscle contracts, making it difficult for urine to pass.

Symptoms

  • Urinary hesitancy
  • Slow or weak urine stream
  • Urinary urgency and/or increased frequency
  • Difficulty in emptying the bladder
  • Dribbling urine after urination is complete
  • Blood in the urine
  • Constipation and faecal soiling

 

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Causes

Voiding dysfunction may be caused by

  • Nerve dysfunction
  • Non-relaxing pelvic floor muscles or both
  • Endocrine or kidney diseases that affect the urinary tract (e.g. diabetes, chronic kidney disease)
  • Genetic diseases that affect the urinary tract (e.g. Ochoa syndrome, Williams syndrome)
  • Infections or irritations that affect the urinary tract (e.g. urinary tract infections, urethritis, pin-worms, foreign bodies)
  • Stress incontinence

Types of voiding dysfunction?

Daytime wetting (also called diurnal enuresis): Daytime wetting can consist of either small urine leaks that spot or dampen underwear to the complete soaking of undergarments.

Urge syndrome: This is frequent attacks of the need to void (at least seven times a day) countered by hold manoeuvre’s, such as squatting. Urine loss is mild, represented by a dampening of undergarments.

Giggle incontinence: This is the complete emptying of the bladder that occurs with vigorous laughter or giggling.

Bed-wetting (also called nocturnal enuresis): This is when a sleeping child cannot control his/her urination at night. It is not considered as problem or abnormal condition till the child reaches the age of five. But it is an abnormal condition if patients age is more than five.

Have you encountered any of the symptoms listed above? Contact Sarah Hussain for better treatment to solve any type of voiding dysfunction related issues. We are just a Click away! 

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What is IC ?

Interstitial cystitis(IC) or Painful bladder Syndrome or bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic inflammation of the bladder wall.  It is a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder area and disease of the bladder characterized by urinary frequency and urgency, irritable voiding, and pelvic pain. It is a chronic, debilitating syndrome.

 

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What are the Symptoms?

  • Bladder pressure and pain that gets worse as your bladder fills up.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pain in your lower tummy, lower back, pelvis, or urethra (the tube that carries pee from your bladder out of your body)
  • Pain, pressure, or tenderness in the pelvic area
  • Urgency to urinate both day and night

What are the causes?

There is no exact cause but some factors may play key role in Painful bladder syndrome or IC or BPS

  • A defect in the bladder wall that allows substances in the urine to irritate the bladder.
  • The body’s immune system attacks the bladder.
  • A specific type of cell that releases histamine (HISS-tuh-meen) (chemical released during an allergic reaction) and other chemicals, which lead to symptoms of IC/BPS.
  • Something in the urine that damages the bladder.
  • Changes in the nerves that carry bladder sensations, making normal events, such as bladder filling, painful.

If you are experiencing bladder problems you can contact Sarah Hussain who specialise in bladder problems. Call for an appointment with her!!

 

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