Fibroids are the most common benign tumors in females and typically found during the middle and later reproductive years. While most fibroids are asymptomatic, they can grow and cause heavy and painful menstruation, painful sexual intercourse, urinary frequency, and urgency. Some fibroids may interfere with pregnancy although this appears to be very rare
Fibroids, particularly when small, may be entirely asymptomatic. Symptoms depend on the location of the lesion and its size. Important symptoms include abnormal gynecologic hemorrhage, heavy or painful periods, abdominal discomfort or bloating, painful defecation, backache, urinary frequency or retention, and in some cases, infertility. There may also be pain during intercourse, depending on the location of the fibroid. During pregnancy, they may also be the cause of miscarriage, bleeding, premature labor, or interference with the position of the fetus.
While fibroids are common, they are not a typical cause for infertility accounting for about 3% of reasons why a woman may not be able to have a child. The majority of women with uterine fibroids will have normal pregnancy outcomes. In cases of intercurrent uterine fibroids in infertility, a fibroid is typically located in a submucosal position and it is thought that this location may interfere with the function of the lining and the ability of the embryo to implant. Also larger fibroids may distort or block the fallopian tubes.